Support for removal of point-of-purchase tobacco advertising and displays: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Canada survey

by:CAI YI JIE     2019-08-11
Although most countries now have at least some restrictions on tobacco marketing, the tobacco industry has met them through re-marketing
Allocate expenditures to unregulated channels, such as at the following point in timeof-purchase.
Methods longitudinal data from 10 Canadian provinces in the International Tobacco Control survey were analyzed to examine adult smokers support tobacco ban advertising and store display, and whether this support is related to noticing any ads or showing in the store to give up intentions over time.
In the fifth wave (October 2006-February 2007), the sixth wave (September 2007-February 2008) and the Seventh Wave (October 2008-June 2009), there were 4580 respondents.
These investigations were conducted before, during and in some cases before, during, and in most provinces and territories in Canada to implement the display ban.
Results during the study, smokers in all provinces strongly supported the ban on tobacco display.
Over time, the Canadian provinces have a comparable level of support for advertising and display bans, regardless of whether they are prohibited or not.
Note the tobacco display and logo-
The store is obviously unlikely to predict support for the display (OR = 0. 73, p=0.
005) and advertising (OR = 0. 78, p=0.
02) prohibited respectively.
Over time, smokers who intend to quit smoking are more likely to support advertising and display bans.
Conclusion This study promptly reminds people that the implementation of tobacco control measures, such as the removal of tobacco displays, seems to sustain the support of smokers who are most likely to oppose them.
Background although most countries now have at least some restrictions on tobacco marketing, the tobacco industry meets these restrictions by re-selling
Allocate expenditures to unregulated channels, such as at the following point in timeof-purchase.
Methods longitudinal data from 10 Canadian provinces in the International Tobacco Control survey were analyzed to examine adult smokers support tobacco ban advertising and store display, and whether this support is related to noticing any ads or showing in the store to give up intentions over time.
In the fifth wave (October 2006-February 2007), the sixth wave (September 2007-February 2008) and the Seventh Wave (October 2008-June 2009), there were 4580 respondents.
These investigations were conducted before, during and in some cases before, during, and in most provinces and territories in Canada to implement the display ban.
Results during the study, smokers in all provinces strongly supported the ban on tobacco display.
Over time, the Canadian provinces have a comparable level of support for advertising and display bans, regardless of whether they are prohibited or not.
Note the tobacco display and logo-
The store is obviously unlikely to predict support for the display (OR = 0. 73, p=0.
005) and advertising (OR = 0. 78, p=0.
02) prohibited respectively.
Over time, smokers who intend to quit smoking are more likely to support advertising and display bans.
Conclusion This study promptly reminds people that the implementation of tobacco control measures, such as the removal of tobacco displays, seems to sustain the support of smokers who are most likely to oppose them.
Tobacco marketing has been used for decades to portray favorable tobacco use, normalize smoking, downplay associated health risks, and ultimately disrupt tobacco control efforts.
1. 2 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 3 currently has 172 signatories, covering nearly 90% of the world\'s population, requiring all member parties to ban tobacco marketing in an all-round way.
The need for a comprehensive ban is based on evidence that the tobacco industry is proficient in using unregulated channels, such as inof-
(POP) to maintain or even increase consumption.
4. 5 pop marketing includes advertising on the service counter, behind and above, and display of tobacco products.
Especially for young people, the display has increased exposure to tobacco products and normalized tobacco use.
4, 6, 7 they also provide strong clues to smoking 8, 9 and stimulate impulsive purchases of adult smokers, recent smokers and those who intend to quit smoking.
The effectiveness of the 8, 10-13 POP Display helps explain why the tobacco industry has increased marketing spending in a retail environment, especially when other marketing channels are closed.
The tobacco industry is strongly opposed to the elimination of pop ads, especially product displays, because they are aware of the importance of them as marketing tools.
8, 13 because the display is still one of the few viable means to promote tobacco products, to understand the extent to which smokers support the removal of tobacco products, the group is most likely to oppose such restrictions, support for the association with smoking cessation intentions helps inform tobacco control policies.
However, so far, studies assessing the support of smokers in eliminating tobacco advertising and display in stores and their intention to quit smoking are still rare, whether in countries where display is prohibited or not.
13-15 in Canada, although tobacco marketing in various forms is prohibited by Tobacco Act 1997, in-
Allow store advertising, such as a logo description showing the availability of tobacco products and their prices.
16 display of tobacco products or accessories of tobacco under the regulations-
Relevant brands may be allowed in retail stores.
Nevertheless, since 2002, some provinces and regions have passed laws calling for the removal of tobacco displays and related advertising, which, despite strong opposition from the tobacco and retail industries, they predict, the shift to \"invisible\" tobacco sales will result in the closure of retailers, a finding that there is no evidence to prove.
17 Irish research shows that support for the display ban has increased by 9-at the population level-
A month before and after policy implementation.
This study and other studies have shown that smokers support a ban on displays because they are considered attractive to promotion and may provide visual clues to potential people
Become a beginner and a recent outcast.
8, 18 recent Cross
The segmented study found that smokers who supported the ban on display were 4 times (49% to 12%) who did not support the display ).
However, there is no study in which empirical studies over a longer period of time show whether the introduction of bans is related to an increase in support, or whether support is related to smoking cessation behavior, as we see smokefree policies.
We expanded existing research to check whether adult smokers in 10 Canadian provinces have increased their support for tobacco removal advertising and store display between 2006 and 2009, during and after study.
Three research questions are discussed in this cardboard pallet display: (1) over time, how does a ban on tobacco display in several Canadian provinces have an impact on smokers supporting this ban?
(2) is noting that tobacco displays and signs in the store foreshadow support for advertising and display bans over time?
(3) What is the association between intention to withdraw and support a ban on advertising and display on POP?
Methods Data and analysis samples the survey of international tobacco control countries shall prevail
An experimental longitudinal telephone survey is conducted annually on nationally representative samples of adult smokers aged 18 and over in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia.
The survey aims to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of major countries
Over time, the level of tobacco policy in these four countries.
Participants were recruited by geographical stratified probability sampling and telephone numbers were randomly selected for each country.
Qualified families are determined by asking about the number of adult smokers in a family informant family, who are defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes in a lifetime and smoking at least once in the last 30 days.
If there is more than one eligible respondent, the target respondent for the family is selected using the next birthday method.
20 in order to maintain at least 2000 of the sample size in each country, supplements are used every year to replace samples lost due to attrition, using random sampling in the same sampling framework.
A complete description of the method and sampling procedure can be found elsewhere.
19. 21 This study provides data on 5 Waves (October 2006-February 2007), 6 waves (September 2007-February 2008) and 7 waves (October 2008-June 2009.
We used all available respondents who participated in one or more of the three waves.
The study used a total of 4580 respondents, only smokers from 10 Canadian provinces.
We only focus on Canada and do not include Australia, the UK or the US, because during the study only some provinces and territories in Canada actually prohibit the display of tobacco products.
All states and territories in Australia have now passed legislation to remove tobacco from regular retail stores by January 2012, and the Scottish and British governments plan to do the same in large stores and supermarkets by April 2012.
Prior to, during and after the study period, 10 Canadian provinces implemented the ban on tobacco display.
Therefore, these 10 provinces are divided into five districts to be reflected before (District 1), (District 2, District 3 and District 4) after the study period (area 5) of the provinces that fully implemented the display ban (Table 1 ).
This allows for comparison of provinces that are prohibited from entering
Store displays and advertisements during and before the study (classified as treatment groups) did not prohibit tobacco display in POP provinces (classified as control groups ).
Three Canadian territories (Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories) were not included in the analysis because their average number was 35 000 (0 per territory ).
(1% of Canada\'s total population ).
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 1 prohibit the implementation date of tobacco displayed at the point-of-
The purchase of this study in Canada\'s provinces and territories was approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the University of Stirling (Scotland) of the Open University of England or the research ethics committee, University of Waterloo (Canada), The Rosewell Park Cancer Institute (USA), the University of Illinois, the University of Chicago (USA) and the Victoria Cancer Council (Australia ).
The international four-nation tobacco control survey is a sample of quasi-data and analysis.
An experimental longitudinal telephone survey is conducted annually on nationally representative samples of adult smokers aged 18 and over in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia.
The survey aims to assess the psychosocial and behavioral impact of major countries
Over time, the level of tobacco policy in these four countries.
Participants were recruited by geographical stratified probability sampling and telephone numbers were randomly selected for each country.
Qualified families are determined by asking about the number of adult smokers in a family informant family, who are defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes in a lifetime and smoking at least once in the last 30 days.
If there is more than one eligible respondent, the target respondent for the family is selected using the next birthday method.
20 in order to maintain at least 2000 of the sample size in each country, supplements are used every year to replace samples lost due to attrition, using random sampling in the same sampling framework.
A complete description of the method and sampling procedure can be found elsewhere.
19. 21 This study provides data on 5 Waves (October 2006-February 2007), 6 waves (September 2007-February 2008) and 7 waves (October 2008-June 2009.
We used all available respondents who participated in one or more of the three waves.
The study used a total of 4580 respondents, only smokers from 10 Canadian provinces.
We only focus on Canada and do not include Australia, the UK or the US, because during the study only some provinces and territories in Canada actually prohibit the display of tobacco products.
All states and territories in Australia have now passed legislation to remove tobacco from regular retail stores by January 2012, and the Scottish and British governments plan to do the same in large stores and supermarkets by April 2012.
Prior to, during and after the study period, 10 Canadian provinces implemented the ban on tobacco display.
Therefore, these 10 provinces are divided into five districts to be reflected before (District 1), (District 2, District 3 and District 4) after the study period (area 5) of the provinces that fully implemented the display ban (Table 1 ).
This allows for comparison of provinces that are prohibited from entering
Store displays and advertisements during and before the study (classified as treatment groups) did not prohibit tobacco display in POP provinces (classified as control groups ).
Three Canadian territories (Yukon, Nunavut and Northwest Territories) were not included in the analysis because their average number was 35 000 (0 per territory ).
(1% of Canada\'s total population ).
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 1 prohibit the implementation date of tobacco displayed at the point-of-
The purchase of this study in Canada\'s provinces and territories was approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the University of Stirling (Scotland) of the Open University of England or the research ethics committee, University of Waterloo (Canada), The Rosewell Park Cancer Institute (USA), the University of Illinois, the University of Chicago (USA) and the Victoria Cancer Council (Australia ).
Measures outcome measures: support for the ban on POP advertising and the display stwo program is used to measure support for the ban on POP advertising and displays: \"Do you support a full ban on tobacco advertising in stores and businesses?
\"Do you support a full ban on cigarette display in stores and shops ? \"?
\"Both are in 3-
Point scale with response options \"a lot\", \"something\" and \"nothing at all.
For the generalized Estimation Equation (GEE) analysis, these 3-
To give support: support for a complete ban (many, some), and a complete ban (not at all) without support ).
QuitA 4-intention
The point scale measuring the level of readiness to quit smoking was divided into two points to compare any smokers with and without intention to quit smoking.
Covariates include: District (comparison between Canadian districts), Wave (5 * to 6 to 7), gender (male * to female), race (Caucasian to others *) age (18-24 to 25-39 to 40-54 to 55 *), income (low and medium and high *) and Education (low and medium and high *), where * indicates the baseline or reference level.
In line with 24 studies by Borland et al, the heavy smoking index combined daily responses to cigarettes and first-time smoking Time (range 0-6 ).
In addition, the interaction of the two main interests of regional X-wave and education X-income was considered.
Respondents were also asked two specific questions about their knowledge of tobacco displays and signs in stores or stores: \"Did you see cigarette packaging displayed last month, including on shelves or on counters?
\"Have you seen any signs, pictures or other things in a store or store with a cigarette brand or logo in the past month?
\"The response to both is divided into\" yes \"(coded as 1) or\" no \"(coded as 0 ).
Outcome measures: support for the ban on POP advertising and the display stwo program is used to measure support for the ban on POP advertising and displays: \"Do you support a full ban on tobacco advertising in stores and businesses?
\"Do you support a full ban on cigarette display in stores and shops ? \"?
\"Both are in 3-
Point scale with response options \"a lot\", \"something\" and \"nothing at all.
For the generalized Estimation Equation (GEE) analysis, these 3-
To give support: support for a complete ban (many, some), and a complete ban (not at all) without support ).
QuitA 4-intention
The point scale measuring the level of readiness to quit smoking was divided into two points to compare any smokers with and without intention to quit smoking.
Covariates include: District (comparison between Canadian districts), Wave (5 * to 6 to 7), gender (male * to female), race (Caucasian to others *) age (18-24 to 25-39 to 40-54 to 55 *), income (low and medium and high *) and Education (low and medium and high *), where * indicates the baseline or reference level.
In line with 24 studies by Borland et al, the heavy smoking index combined daily responses to cigarettes and first-time smoking Time (range 0-6 ).
In addition, the interaction of the two main interests of regional X-wave and education X-income was considered.
Respondents were also asked two specific questions about their knowledge of tobacco displays and signs in stores or stores: \"Did you see cigarette packaging displayed last month, including on shelves or on counters?
\"Have you seen any signs, pictures or other things in a store or store with a cigarette brand or logo in the past month?
\"The response to both is divided into\" yes \"(coded as 1) or\" no \"(coded as 0 ).
To investigate weightsCross-
Use the penultimate containing probability to calculate the weight of the respondent\'s segmented survey.
Over time, deviations from the proportional distribution of the geographic class were adjusted and calibrated to add up to the number of smokers in the age-gender group.
As a result, respondents were weighted to represent adult smokers in each province.
Respondents who completed follow-up work
The baseline weight (wave 5) of the Up survey (I . e. , waves 6 and waves 7) is adjusted for loss.
All the analyses described in this cardboard pallet display are weighted.
Data analysis using SAS 9.
2. a statistical software.
The GEE25-27 is used to check whether the smoker\'s support for POP ads and displays has changed over time (waves 5, 6, and 7 ).
The GEE model was evaluated through binomial changes and logistic links to determine whether the observed policy support changes were greater over time in the Canadian provinces that showed the ban than in the provinces that did not.
This approach takes into account the correlation of the data in the cross-wave subjects and allows the population to be assessed on average during the study period without requiring an individual to be present in each wave.
All GEE models are specified by internal switchable
Group related structure.
By testing the regional X-wave interaction effects in various GEE models, observed changes in policy support were evaluated.
The coefficients of the covariates (predictive variables) of interest, such as noting tobacco displays and signs in stores and key demographic statistics in the model, are indexed to estimate the OR supported by the policy.
For each coefficient, the p-value of ORs and the associated 95% CIs are estimated by SEs.
As a result, of the policy support in the five regions of Canada, the support for popular advertising and display bans was the largest in the first and second regions, where the display ban was adopted in advance, the lowest is in zone 5, a latecomer, with more than half of smokers supporting each wave.
The level of support for the display ban is quite consistent between the regions of Wave 5, but the wave 7 is relatively dispersed (see figure 1 ).
Download figureOpen figure 1 support for forbidden points in the new tabDownload powerpoint-of-
Buy tobacco displays through waves and areas.
Similarly, in 3 waves, Zone 2 has higher support for the full advertising ban, and the support for the remaining 4 districts is comparable, as shown in Table 2. Over two-
Thirty smokers from District 1 to District 3 reported that they supported banning advertising in every wave.
In addition, in wave 5 between different regions, the degree of support for the POP ad ban is relatively consistent, but is dispersed by wave 7 (Figure 2 ).
View this table: View support for forbidden pointsof-
Purchase display and advertising (weighted frequency by wave and region)of-
Buy tobacco ads through waves and areas.
Supporting the prohibition of advertising and display in five Canadian districts, as well as their association with intention to quit smoking on Schedule 3, for smokers who support advertising and display bans over time, a weighted GEE support has the intention to withdraw.
Based on these results, the region-wide X-wave interaction effect (see table 3) shows that support for prohibited display in five regions of Canada is comparable over time (p> 0. 05).
Again, in-
Regional comparisons show that the support of Canadian smokers is comparable in the last three waves (p> 0. 05).
However, there are 2 smokers in Canada who intend to quit smoking.
Over time, the possibility of supporting the display of bans has increased by 32 times (p 0. 05).
Compared with smoking cessation intentions, there were 2 smokers in Canada who intended to quit smoking.
People who support advertising bans are 11 times more than those who do not intend to resign.
Smokers who notice tobacco ads in the store are unlikely to support a ban on advertising (OR = 0. 78, p=0. 02).
Among the top five regional policy support in Canada, support for popular advertising and display bans is the largest in the first and second districts, where the display ban is passed in advance, the lowest is in zone 5, a latecomer, with more than half of smokers supporting each wave.
The level of support for the display ban is quite consistent between the regions of Wave 5, but the wave 7 is relatively dispersed (see figure 1 ).
Download figureOpen figure 1 support for forbidden points in the new tabDownload powerpoint-of-
Buy tobacco displays through waves and areas.
Similarly, in 3 waves, Zone 2 has higher support for the full advertising ban, and the support for the remaining 4 districts is comparable, as shown in Table 2. Over two-
Thirty smokers from District 1 to District 3 reported that they supported banning advertising in every wave.
In addition, in wave 5 between different regions, the degree of support for the POP ad ban is relatively consistent, but is dispersed by wave 7 (Figure 2 ).
View this table: View support for forbidden pointsof-
Purchase display and advertising (weighted frequency by wave and region)of-
Buy tobacco ads through waves and areas.
Supporting the prohibition of advertising and display in five Canadian districts, as well as their association with intention to quit smoking on Schedule 3, for smokers who support advertising and display bans over time, a weighted GEE support has the intention to withdraw.
Based on these results, the region-wide X-wave interaction effect (see table 3) shows that support for prohibited display in five regions of Canada is comparable over time (p> 0. 05).
Again, in-
Regional comparisons show that the support of Canadian smokers is comparable in the last three waves (p> 0. 05).
However, there are 2 smokers in Canada who intend to quit smoking.
Over time, the possibility of supporting the display of bans has increased by 32 times (p 0. 05).
Compared with smoking cessation intentions, there were 2 smokers in Canada who intended to quit smoking.
People who support advertising bans are 11 times more than those who do not intend to resign.
Smokers who notice tobacco ads in the store are unlikely to support a ban on advertising (OR = 0. 78, p=0. 02).
Despite denying the use of traditional marketing channels, the tobacco industry is still using the retail environment for commodity marketing.
5,8 we investigated the support of adult smokers in 10 Canadian provinces for a full ban on tobacco advertising and POP display, and what does this have to do with their intention to withdraw over time.
The study found that Canadian smokers had a high level of support for removing displays during the study.
Among those most likely to oppose these measures, this support was found to support other tobacco control policies such as the 28-year-old ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, 29 picture warning labels 30 and smoke-
Free public places
31 The findings indicate the need for a comprehensive ban on tobacco marketing, as included in article 13th of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
32 among smokers in Canada\'s provinces, the support was strongest and they were exposed to this policy at baseline, for example, at the second follow-up
More than three-
Smokers in the province of SA, Manitoba and Prince Edward Island supported the display ban, compared with more than half of smokers in Newfoundland and Labrador, the only province to ban the display after the end of the study period.
However, there was no significant difference in the level of support for the display ban in 10 provinces and during the study period.
Similar levels of support may indicate the proliferation effect33-36 of display bans from provinces such as the province of SA (due to public movements, litigation and debates surrounding its removal), Manitoba and Prince Edwards Island, and those who are partially prohibited or not.
Further research is needed to confirm this, but past studies have found that policy support for smoking has spread
Free legislation across geographically dispersed smokers.
33, 34, 36 we found that there was no significant difference in the level of support for the POP advertising ban in 10 provinces.
Smokers in Canada\'s provinces have noticed tobacco displays and signs in stores, and they are unlikely to support a ban on advertising and display.
Exposed-
Store Tobacco promotions have a lower level of support for bans, suggesting that the presence of these visual cues may weaken support.
Smokers who intend to quit smoking support the ban on tobacco advertising and display.
This support may in part be due to the lack of access to attractive visual cues in the retail environment to smoke, and the discovery that the display will stimulate the impulse purchase of people trying to quit smoking.
Although longitudinal design is used, there is no limit to our research.
Respondents lost to attrition in follow-up
This can distort the discovery.
Since these analyses were conducted through weighted GEE on the 25 th and 26 th, this enabled these models to use all observations in three waves, the potential impact of respondents would be lost
Minimize up.
Due to the demand features of the survey, there may also be differences between regions, which may prompt the response of social expectations, or may be affected by personal experience or media reports on policy implementation.
Another potential limitation is the possibility of experiments.
Wise mistakes due to the number-
Regional comparison, that is, the possibility of incorrectly rejecting zero assumptions due to multiple comparisons.
Finally, there\'s no-
Regional changes in policy support levels may be due to the lack of early data and short research cycles over time.
In many countries, POP\'s tobacco marketing is one of the few remaining ways for the tobacco industry to promote its products.
Tobacco display is a powerful marketing tool that normalizes smoking and allows the tobacco industry to communicate with non-tobacco industriessmokers, ex-
Smokers and veteran smokers.
Most smokers support a visible display of banning tobacco products in a retail environment, just like other tobacco control policies, and should help convince decision makers in other jurisdictions that it is necessary to cancel POP displays.
Future studies should assess the long-term impact of the display ban on the support of smokers, if this support is related to the intention to quit smoking, especially in the retail environment, the impact on smoking leads and behavior is expected to decline.
This article adds the tobacco industry to cope with marketing restrictions by using unregulated channels, suchof-purchase.
This article shows the degree of support for the display ban --of-
Purchases are high in all 10 provinces in Canada, and they are comparable, regardless of whether they ban tobacco display in stores.
However, Newfoundland and Labrador have the lowest support ratings, the only province not to be banned from display during the study.
Over time, smokers who intend to quit smoking are more likely to support advertising and display bans.
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The study was funded by the National Cancer Institute/NIH (cross-specialty Tobacco Use Research Center at Rosewell Park), p50 CA111236 and R01 ca100135), the Canadian Institute of Health (57897), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (045734), National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (265903), Cancer Research UK, Federal Department of Health and Aging, Australia (C312/A3726), National Cancer Institute of Canada/Cancer Society of Canada behavioral research and project evaluation center and Tobacco Control Research Canada initiative.
There is no competitive interest.
Ethics approval this study is approved by the Institutional Review Committee of Stirling University (Scotland), Open University (UK), University of Waterloo (Canada) or the research ethics committee, the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (USA), the University of Illinois, the University of Chicago (USA) and the Victoria Cancer Council (Australia ).
Uncommissioned source and peer review;
External peer review.
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